The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and
an adverbial or adjectival character.
There are two participles in English: Participle I ("breaking,
writing") and Participle II ("broken, written")
traditionally called the Present & Past participles.
These terms are open to objection on the ground that Participle
II need not refer to the past just as Participle I does not necessarily refer
to the present. The difference is not that of tense, but chiefly that of voice.
Participle I, as well as the Gerund,
has the categories of VOICE & PRIORITY, or TIME CORRELATION, thus appearing
in four forms: writing, being written, having written, having been written.
Participle I non-perfect denotes an action
simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, while the perfect
form denotes priority. Yet sometimes Participle I non-perfect can also be used
when priority is meant.
Participle I Perfect is never used
attributively, so Participle I in the function of an attribute cannot express priority. Therefore it often happens that
an active Russian participle in the past («сказавший, сделавший») is translated into English by a clause ("the
man who said/did it").
If the past form of the Russian participle denotes an action simultaneous
with that expressed by the finite verb, it
is possible to use Participle I non-perfect instead of a clause ("He-saw a
picture hanging above his head").
But this usage of Participle I is only possible
when it is used to identify the object, not to provide additional information about it.
Combining each pair of sentences into one sentence, making use of the Perfect or Non-Perfect Participle.
· Mr. Miller told us all he had to tell. Then he left meeting. – Having
told us all he had to tell, Mr. Miller left the meeting.
I thought I could learn English in one year. I decided to go to London.
– Thinking I could learn English in one
year, I decided to go to London.
We’d heard much about Jack’s character. When we met him, we were very
cautious. – Having heard much about Jack’s character, we were very cautious,
when we met him.
She thought she could always have her way with me. She expected me to
forgive her everything. – Thinking she could always have her way with me, she
expected me to forgive her everything.
Flora had seen all the world. She decided to settle in a little village in
her country. – Having seen all the world, she decided to settle in a little
village in her country.
The enemy crossed the frontier. The enemy was approaching the capital. –
Having crossed the frontier, the enemy was approaching the capital.
man (написавший это) it must have been very wise.
old woman (сидевшая) in the corner didn’t seem to recognize me.
old man, (ничего
не поймавший) for 84 days, at last caught a big fish.
stretched his arms towards the child (бежавшему) to meet him.
old man, (научивший) the boy to fish, had to go out to sea alone.
writer, (упустивший) the chance to participate in the forum, felt rather annoyed.
(заявившая) her complaint assertively, avoided an embarrassing
scene and was given what she wanted.
man who wrote it must have been very wise.
old woman sitting in the corner didn't seem to recognize me.
old man, who didn't catch anything for 84 days, at last caught a big fish.
stretched his arms towards the child running to meet him.
old man, who had taught the boy to fish, had to go out to sea alone.
writer, who had missed the chance to participate in the forum, felt rather
who stated her complaint assertively, avoided an embarrassing scene and was
given what she wanted.
Identifying the following "ing" -forms as either the gerund or the participle and translate.
- They noticed their cousin dancing with Ann (Participle I) - Они заметили своего кузена, танцующего с Энн.
- Leave off ballancing on your chair (Gerund) - Перестань раскачиваться на стуле.
- The question being settled, we went home (Participle) - Разрешив вопрос, мы пошли домой.
- There was little hope of reaching home before midnight (Gerund) - Оставалась небольшая надежда вернуться домой до полуночи.
- On having rung the bell, he announced himself as Mr.Smith (Gerund) - После звонка, он представился мистером Смитом.
- The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible (Participle) - Пересечение реки, которая разлилась ночью, было невозможно.
- The musicians vanished without his having seen them go (Gerund) - Он не увидел как ушли музыканты.
- Not having understood the direction clearly, I couldn't find the way in the dark (Participle) - Не понимая четко направление, я не мог найти путь в темноте.
Principle constructions are often used to lend
vividness to an image, either a static or a dynamic one. In such cases it is
not the principle clause that matters but the phrases giving additional
Amy stood at the school gates under the shelter
of her umbrella, looking at her watch. Rosie was very late. Wherever could she
be? Amy couldn’t calm down, fingering the book that she was holding in her
hands over. It was already seven o’clock, but Rosie still wasn’t here. Maybe
she was at home, talking to her mother or maybe she was already in the bus,
half way to Amy. But Amy couldn’t get rid of that worried feeling. She knew something
bad could happen to her friend. But she was just standing, looking at her watch
and counting minutes…
It was nearly midnight when I heard the doorbell
ring. Having opened the door, I saw a girl with a motorbike helmet, all covered
in blood. She looked at me, her eyes full of tears. Despite me being frightened
and shocked, I asked her to come in and ran to the phone, desperate, to call
for the ambulance. Having returned to the door, I noticed the girl lying on the
floor. Having fainted, she looked even more miserable and little. I looked at
her, her arms stretched, her body bleeding. Suddenly I saw a note being held
tightly in her hand… (to be continued)
The mad passions of a hunted animal stirred
within him, and he loathed the man sitting at the table. Glancing wildly
around, his eye fell on a knife he had brought up some days ago to cut a piece
of cord. He moved slowly towards it, clenching his fists with all his strength,
thinking only about his enemy. Suddenly he heard a faint rustle, his senses
strained, his eyes peering into the darkness of the room. One second – and,
feeling a harsh stab somewhere beneath the ribs, he dropped the heavy lantern
he held tightly in his hand. The hunt was over.