c) show that a thing fails to perform its immediate function;
d) show a polite request
e) express supposition: WILLis used to (with the simple infinitivein reference to the present and with the perfect infinitive interference to the past):
E.G.: "You will have heard the news. I’m sure"=”I’m sure youhave heard the news".
f) express a willingness to oblige (used in clauses of condition)
E.G.: «Если вы будете настолько любезны ...».
g) sarcastically express that something was to be expected.
SHALL as a modal verb is used to express:
a) an offer of service;
b) obligation, promise, determination, willingness, prohibition
(SHALL NOT) in the 2nd and 3rd persons.
SHOULDas a modal verb is used to express:
a) obligation with a touch of advisability or desirability;
b) strong probability;
c) regret or reproach;
d) it may be used instead of a simple predicate to add emotional colouring to the utterance (surprise, irritation, pleasure .etc.) ("I am surprised that she thinks so" – "I’m surprised that she should think so".)
1. Study the additonal examples. Read aloud and translate the context-starters and the responses. Read the starting sentence and give your own response.
I expect you to help me with the party. – Shall I go shopping with you? / Why should I always take part in your stupid and boring parties? / Shall we call all the guests and tell them to come at 9? Why should you always ask me for a favour? Shall I help you with some arrangements? Shall we go shopping today? Will you help me to bake some cookies? Shall I buy some balloons? Why should I help you? What shall I do? Can I help you? Shall I buy something to eat and drink? Shall I help you to decorate the house? Shall I send the invitations to our friends?
I’ll have to spend a solitary week-end unless you choose to stay here with me. – Why should I always keep your company? / Shall we go and visit your friends? / Why should you always be so lonely? Why should I take care of you? Why should you always ruin my plans? Shall we have a pajamas-party? Why should I waste my time on you? Why should you always ask me to stay with you? What shall we do then?
I’ll have to spend a solitary week-end unless you choose to stay here with me. – But why should I always spend my free time with you?? You know, I’m not your nanny. I’m not going to indulge your caprices! After all, you even never listen to me, you always hold me cheap. But you know that nobody will agree to spend this week-end with you because you are an egoist, you can think just only about yourself. So don’t expect me to be your friend anymore!
I’ll never be able to adjust myself to the situation! – Shall I do something for you? / Why should you always be so old-fashioned? Life is changing! / Why should I listen to you grudging and complaining? Shall I help you? Well you explain you problem in detail? Shall we discuss it? Will you ever try to cope with the situation yourself? Should I give you my advice? Would you stop complaining, please?!
I’ll never be able to adjust myself to the situation! – Yes, you won’t! Because you are too inattentive. Since your childhood you have been unorganized! And why should I always help you? Why can’t you track with people? Why should I always compromise the action? Listen, you get on my nerves! Try to behave not like a child!
Should an opportunity present itself, I’ll jump at it. – Why should you always rush head over heels? / Will you knock on the wood when you say that? / Shall I inform you about the occasion? Why should you always promise something and never keep your promise? Shall I help you find that opportunity? Will you speak about it later? I’m quite busy now! Shall I inform you about it? Why should you always wait for an opportunity? Begin to act right now! Will you tell me if this happens?
2. Look through the following monologues. Add two sentences at the end of each monologue. Read, look and say.
Why should he always be suffering? It seemed unjust to him that he should always try so hard and get nothing in return. He would go out of his way to get his pupils interested, but they would only sneer at him! His colleagues believe he shall change his methods of teaching, but he is astonished that they should think so. He will spend hours to prepare a new, really absorbing lesson for his pupils, but they won’t even let him utter a word. Why should they be so aggressive and nasty towards this innocent man? Of course, he should ask the headmaster for a piece of advice, and the headmaster ought to help him - he would help this brilliant teacher! But the teacher himself will be reluctant to go to the principal’s office and everything will be the same…
Why should you always be so lazy??? Look! The tap is leaking again! When will you fix it?! Why should you never listen to me? No matter how loud I speak, you won’t hear me at all! I should have thought you were going to be a perfect husband, but I was terribly mistaken. What should I do now? Shall I do everything myself? Shall I repair the car, mend the refrigerator, fix the damned tap? Should I explain to you once again who the man in our family is?! ...
It was inconceivable of her that he should have turned out to be such a scoundrel. He would promise so much! How could she believe him? How could she be such a fool? Why would she wait for him when he was with another girl? Why would she spend sleepless nights worrying about him? She is surprised that he should leave her easily, without a word of excuse. Why will we treasure people who even dare betray us?!...
Why are you looking at me so indifferently? Don't you understand that I'm in panic? You would never notice anything! You would never pay any attention to the people around you! You would take care only about yourself. Why should I pity you now? Why should I explain to you why I'm outraged? Why should I show you all your drawbacks? Will you ever understand this yourself? But now, I'm fed up. You shall never come here again...
3. Write a reaction text of about 4-6 sentences to each of the following utterances. Record the final version as an audio file.
- Why should he always be suffering? It seemed unjust to him that he should always try so hard and get nothing in return. He would go out of his way to get his pupils interested, but they would only sneer at him! He would make them work a lot to improve their skills, but they would never thank him. He would try to correct every mistake, but they would get offended. He would tell them funny stories, but they wouldn’t laugh. Why can’t he understand they don’t want to do anything at all?
- Why should he always be suffering? It seemed unjust to him that he should always try so hard and get nothing in return. He would go out of his way to get his pupils interested, but they would only sneer at him! He would do everything to understand the reasons for their disrespectful behavior. He would try to change his manners and habits. He would manage to do much more than others, but all in vain. Why should he always been so unlucky?
- It was inconceivable of her that he should have turned out to be such a scoundrel. He would promise so much! How could she believe him? How could she be such a fool? He would make her believe him, he would make her trust him, he would make her love him. Why should it turned out to be a lie? He would say "I need you”, he would say "I shall be always with you”. What should he do it for? She will never forgive him. She should never believe anybody again.
- It was inconceivable of her that he should have turned out to be such a scoundrel. He would promise so much! How could she believe him? How could she be such a fool? But she loved him and she didn’t expect him to behave in such a way. He promised her to marry and they discussed their wedding. They discussed their future. She couldn’t imagine her life without him. But he left her. And it seemed that she was alone in the whole world.
4. Read the two beginnings of the same story. Choose one and continue it keeping the same intention and mood. You are expected to add about 5-10 sentences.
He pulled the door of the safe, but it wouldn't open. It was terrible that he should have such trouble with the safe. He needed the money badly, and he was pressed for time. Why should Fate always turn against him? He made one more attempt. Fail. He should have predicted such a problem. He should have developed so called "plan B”. Why should he always rely on occasion? Will he ever change his habits?
He pulled the door of the safe, but it wouldn't open. It was terrible that he should have such trouble with the safe. He needed the money badly, and he was pressed for time. Why should Fate always turn against him? He should have predicted it. He would be the last in any competition when he was a child. But he’s sure everything’ll be all right. He will succeed. Such a naïve man…